Does Thomas Paine have any descendants?

No. Paine was an only child, and he never had children (that survived). There have been several claims or beliefs from people thinking they are descendants because of similar names, or family mythologies. But none have borne out. The claims center around three possibilities (all of which have been proven false): first, that from Paine’s first wife, who died in childbirth, the child lived - but records show otherwise: both she and the child died; second, that Paine had siblings from his father’s side, but no proof of that has been established. Even if established that would not be direct descendancy; and third, that Thomas Bonneville, the son of Madame Bonneville and her husband and comrade of Paine, Nicholas, was instead Paine’s son - but Madame Bonneville filed suit against the author of that (an early biography written to slander Paine) and won based on court evidence close to that time period. Other claims come from a confusion of the name Paine, some confusing Robert Treat Paine with him, who was, instead, not only unrelated, but a political enemy. However, there are probably hundreds of thousands of very distant cousins, as his aunts or uncles would have produced children. So family mythologies are probably based on that.